Decorative rose hips: varieties, planting and care
It is rare to meet a person who is unfamiliar with the healing and beneficial properties of rose hips. Therefore, shrubs of this culture are often found both in personal plots and gardens, and in the wild. However, there are many types of plants, which, in turn, differ in the chemical composition of berries and methods of their use. So, you need to be able to distinguish in appearance shrubs of a medicinal type from decorative.
How to distinguish therapeutic rose from decorative
The rosehip berries, despite the appearance, are very similar to each other - both the decorative rosehips and the garden rose retain the basic color and shape of the berries. The same applies to the bushes of the plant - it is difficult for an inexperienced gardener to find differences. Therefore, in order not to be mistaken, you should pay attention to sepals. This part of the fruit in the vitamin varieties is located forward, while in the decorative (or wild) species it is bent back and “lies” on the fruits.
Did you know? The highest bushes of some varieties of rose hips can reach a height of 10 m, and the lowest - 5 cm.
Varieties of decorative rose hips
Rosehip shrub is one of the most common crops belonging to the Pink family. The plant has many varieties, the number of which varies from 300 to 500. In addition to garden species, the berries of which are widely used in the preparation of all kinds of useful decoctions and dogrose infusions, there are also decorative types of culture, which can often be found as an integral element of landscape gardening (flower beds and stalls, casing tracks and vertical landscaping). Unlike other species, decorative varieties have a long flowering period and a diverse color palette.
Rosehip French grows in southern Europe, western Russia, as well as in Crimea and is the founder of the pharmacy rose, popular in Europe in the Middle Ages. Bushes of this variety are stunted - their height usually does not exceed 1 m. Rosehip is a small branch, has a well-developed root system that grows in the horizontal direction, which often leads to the formation of thickets. All parts of the plant are strewn with large sharp spikes and small needles.
The inflorescences are large, their color can vary from pink to bright red, located at the very ends of the shoots. Sepals are large, have large side feathers. The leaves are large, can reach 12 cm, rich green color. In this case, the back side of the leaves has a paler shade and is covered with villi.The peak of flowering falls in June. The fruits of the plant are characterized by a spherical shape, and their diameter reaches 1.5 cm. The winter hardiness of the variety is high. Fruiting occurs at 5-6 year of growth.
Did you know? The oldest rosehip bush grows in the garden section of the cathedral, located in Germany. According to some estimates, his age exceeds 500 years.
Park rosehip is a leafy shrub whose height can reach 1–1.5 m. The flowering period begins a few weeks earlier than other varieties of roses (late spring - early summer) and lasts about a month. But even in the autumn period, these shrubs do not lose their attractiveness due to the bright foliage and fruits, and therefore are often used as a decor for lawns both in a single planting and in a group.
Inflorescences differ in a wide color gamut (from white shades to dark violet, yellow and orange). Most flowers have a dense terry, and the number of petals exceeds 100-150 units.
Mayrose bushes are the most common in Russia in regions with a middle-zone climate. Due to its wide popularity, the exact number of its varieties is still unknown. May hips are extremely unpretentious in growing: grows on almost any soil, has high winter hardiness, as well as stable immunity to almost all diseases and pests.
The characteristics of this variety of rose hips are variable. The height of the shrub can vary from 1 to 3 m. The inflorescences are medium in size, with solid sepals, a soft pink hue. Flowering occurs in early summer, and by the end - the first fruits appear, the shape of which can also be either spherical or oval-elongated or flattened. The base of the bush and its branches are covered with curved thorns, they turn into small needles closer to the inflorescences.
The procedure for planting a decorative rosehip is not very difficult. This culture is undemanding, well-rooted and growing rapidly. Planting is carried out in the spring before the buds begin to bloom, two-year-old seedlings are used.In this case, if it is necessary to create a hedge, bushes are planted according to the scheme:
- varieties with bushes of medium height - 60 × 60 cm or 80 × 80 cm;
- tall varieties - 30 × 30 cm or 50 × 50 cm.
And in case of group planting of a crop, the distance of one seedling to another should be at least 1.5 m. For quick rooting, the root system of a seedling is shortened by several centimeters so that the total length remains at least 20–25 cm, and the aerial part is cut to 10 cm .
Important! Before planting, the seedling must be immersed in a mash of manure and peat (for 10 liters of water, 1 shovel of peat and 1 shovel of manure will be required).
Landing consists of several stages:
- The landing pit is prepared in advance (in autumn), which allows the soil to settle in it and evenly moisten. The dimensions of the hole are 50 × 50 × 50 cm.
- When digging a hole, the soil of the upper layer (the most fertile) is discarded separately and mixed with fertilizer (15 kg of humus or compost, 200-300 g of superphosphate, 50-60 g of potassium sulfate).
- The prepared substrate is placed in a pit and poured with water. A sapling with previously spread rhizome is placed on top and sprinkled with soil.
- The soil around the bush is carefully compacted, watered again and mulched with a layer of peat.
When choosing a place for planting rose hips, the needs of the plant for healthy development and the possibility of bearing fruit should be taken into account, and therefore the site should have several basic characteristics:
- to be well lit;
- to have loamy or slightly acidic soil;
- to be located on a small elevation, which excludes the possibility of close occurrence of groundwater.
In addition, you should know that rosehips, which have high indicators of frost resistance and drought tolerance, are often used to strengthen the soil, for example, along a ravine or stream. Also, this culture can act as a barbed hedge around the perimeter of the site or as a decor that can veil the outbuilding, a compost pit.
However, it is worth considering that the plant has a fairly powerful root system, which can grow rapidly, giving a large number of underground shoots in the upper soil layer. To avoid this situation, rosehip bushes are often fenced with slate, which is dug into the ground to a depth of about 30 cm.
Important! The only soil in which rose hips cannot grow is swampy soil with close-lying groundwater.
The soil for planting rose hips does not require special preparation. If the soil does not meet the required, its composition is preliminarily improved.When planting rosehips in the spring in the fall, on 1 m² of soil, compost (about 7 kg), superphosphate (50 g), potassium salts (25 g) are added. In case of increased soil acidity, the addition of slaked lime will also be required.Usually, weed removal and digging of the soil to a depth of 20 cm is carried out.
Despite the unpretentiousness of the plant, its cultivation will require adherence to several basic agrotechnical measures. In addition to watering and top dressing, the soil of the near-trunk circle of rose hips must be systematically loosened. This approach helps to improve and restore the structure of the soil, maintain the desired level of moisture, as well as supply the root system with oxygen. Around the bush, weed should be regularly removed.
Caring for the crop includes systematic pruning, which will not only help give the shrub the desired shape, but will also become the basis for the health and development of the plant.
The first pruning is carried out immediately after planting a seedling in a permanent place and consists in shortening all shoots to three buds. The next pruning is repeated after 2 years - weak and damaged branches must be completely removed, and strong shoots are shortened to a length of 20 cm.
The pruning process is carried out in the spring before the buds open, or in the fall before the first frost.
Subsequently, frost-damaged, damaged or diseased branches are annually removed from the shrub. Regular pinching of the tops is also recommended, which stimulates lateral branching of the bush. Rosehip has a stable immunity to various diseases and pests, which, however, does not cancel the need for preventive treatment of the bush.To do this, before the buds open, shrubs are treated with fungicidal and insecticidal preparations. You should also systematically remove the fallen leaves and burn them, dig a near-trunk circle, constantly inspect the bushes for the first signs of the disease.
Due to the high drought tolerance, rosehip does not require frequent and plentiful watering, it is needed only in the dry summer season. Seedlings of the first year of life are also especially in need of watering. The frequency of watering varies between 3-5 times for the entire season. The amount of moisture required by one bush is 3 liters of water for young and about 5 liters for shrubs that have entered the fruiting stage.
For the full growth and development of a plant, it is necessary to provide it with all the necessary nutrients. This is especially important in the early years of rosehip growth. The best option is the use of organic and mineral fertilizing.
Moreover, in the second year of life, the soil is additionally fertilized with preparations containing nitrogen, and in the third year - with organic matter (you can use compost or humus). Feeding is carried out several times a year: always in the period before and after flowering, as well as in the process of berry formation and at the end of fruiting.
Typically, wild rose does not need special preparation for the winter period. Young plants can be an exception, the harsh climate of the growing region is also a reason for protecting the shrub. So that the bushes can easily tolerate frosts, the soil of the trunk circle is covered with a layer of straw, and then mulched.
The plant itself is wrapped in any heat-insulating material (for example, burlap). At the same time, some distance must remain between the material of the shelter and the bush itself for the possibility of free air circulation.Decorative varieties of rose hips are quite popular among many summer residents and gardeners. In addition to decorative properties that allow you to decorate areas with bushes of bright roses, this plant also has useful characteristics, namely the ability to strengthen the soil or the ability to act as a prickly hedge.