Redcurrant pruning in autumn
Berry bushes of red currant can be found in almost every household plot, and this is not surprising. After all, the fruits of this culture are appreciated not only for their excellent taste characteristics, but also for their useful and healing properties. The advantages of currants are its unpretentiousness in care and high yields in almost any climate. However, despite these characteristics, there are still key agricultural activities, without which culture will not be able to produce a crop. Among them - watering, top dressing and, of course, pruning bushes, which has many types and various purposes.
How to prune red currants in the fall to get a good harvest
Autumn is the best time for pruning redcurrant bushes. This can be explained by the early start of plant vegetation processes in the spring, which requires pruning in February, as well as the active growth of new branches in the summer. Processing the plant in the autumn season will make it easy to survive the winter cold, and with the arrival of heat, send nutrients to the development of the bush.
Did you know? Unripe currants contain 5 times more vitamin C, in contrast to fully ripened, which means it is more beneficial for health.
The benefits of pruning in the fall
- Pruning is an obligatory agro-technical measure, and carrying it out in autumn has a number of advantages:
- beneficial effect on the growth processes of the plant with the onset of spring;
- directs nutrients to the currant ovaries;
- minimizes crowding and thickening of shoots on a bush;
- with the advent of spring, the plant does not waste strength with the growth of leaves on old branches;
- the risk of developing fungal diseases and pest attacks is significantly reduced;
- shoots left after pruning receive significantly more nutrients and sunlight;
- the duration of fruiting currants is significantly increased (up to 20 years);
- yield indicators are increasing;
- Harvesting is greatly facilitated.
Pruning Schemes: Tips for Beginner Gardeners
There are several main types of trimming, and each of them is designed for its own purposes. However, before embarking on the process itself, it should be clarified which of the branches will remain on the bushes, and which of them will interfere with the growth and fruiting of the plant. This approach stimulates the growth of young shoots, the yield level of which is much higher than the branches that have reached the age of three.Pruned branches are those whose lifespan is more than two years.
However, excessive enthusiasm for pruning can also negatively affect the plant and cause the appearance of tops of shoots - branches with a vertical direction. They are characterized by rapid growth and low branching ability. Also, you should know that the laying of fruit buds on redcurrant bushes usually occurs at the tips of the shoots, so not all branches are shortened, but only those whose age exceeds 4 years.
Did you know? Currants contain substances that can remove radioisotopes from the human body. Therefore, these berries must be included in the diet of people who work in hazardous industries.
By forming pruning is meant to give the bushes a certain shape and further adhere to it.At the same time, the number of shoots left on the plant depends on the frequency of planting bushes - the denser the planting, the more intensive the pruning. The main nuance is the presence of shoots of different ages on the same plant. This approach provides regular fruiting and quick recovery.
In addition to the usual bush form, there are also several main types of forming pruning.
- Stamp - relates to well-known methods of forming the crown of not only plants intended for the decor of the site, but also berry bushes. It should be borne in mind that it is not suitable for all varieties of currants, since it involves maximum intervention in the lower tier of the branches of the bush. Moreover, this type of pruning can significantly increase and lengthen berry brushes.
Video: standard currant pruning
The stamping process is carried out in several steps:
- after planting, only one central shoot is left on the seedling, after shortening it by 1/2 and removing the lower buds (leaving 3-4 on top);
- after a year, only 4 shoots with different growth directions are left on the stem (they will make up the skeleton of the future bush), the remaining buds are removed along the entire height of the stem;
- for 3 years of bush growth, root shoots are removed, leaving the strongest two-year-old shoots (having previously shortened them by 1/2), as well as skeletal branches;
- further care consists in removing weak and broken branches, as well as shortening the side shoots with the smallest number of ovaries by 10 cm.
The formation of a bush by the type of cordon implies the following actions:
- when planting, one central shoot is selected from the seedling, which is half cut and tied to a support;
- side branches are cut to a length of 3-4 cm;
- starting from the next year (in the spring), the main conductor is shortened to a length of about 15 cm from the growth, with the cut annually facing in opposite directions;
- lateral branches are shortened by 2-3 cm each year.
The formation process consists of several steps:
- one of the shoots is used to form the central conductor;
- the remaining branches are fixed on both sides at a height of about 30 cm from the ground (the formation of the first tier);
- every year, as it grows, new branches are fixed horizontally, and new tiers gradually build up.
Important! After pruning, in order to avoid the appearance of various diseases, it is recommended to treat the cut sites with garden var.
Red currant has a fruiting limit, after which the number of berries is significantly reduced. Usually this period is 8-9 years. Therefore, as a rejuvenation of the bush, trimming of old branches is carried out, which stimulates the renewal of the whole plant. The preferred time for this procedure is autumn (after the leaves fall completely) or spring (a more suitable period, since it is much easier to distinguish old branches from new ones).
Fig. 1.Currant pruning: a - annual seedling; b - a biennial bush; c, d - shortening of shoots. Fig. 2. Currant bush before anti-aging pruning (a), after it (b) and pruning of a neglected bush (c).
There are several recommendations that should be followed during the rejuvenation procedure:
- after harvesting, pruning of all fruiting branches is carried out, thereby freeing up space for new shoots;
- weak bushes, whose growth per year is not more than 0.4 m, cut to 5 buds, which will significantly strengthen the plant;
- old kusi with high yields perform radical rejuvenation, removing all old branches;
- rejuvenation requires taking into account the currant variety - non-hybrid varieties form berries on two-year-old shoots, and therefore such branches are cut only partially;
- when determining the number of branches left, the strength of the bush should be taken into account: more than 15 branches are left on powerful plants, not more than 5 on weak ones.
Important! You should know that after rejuvenation of the bushes, fruiting of the crop usually occurs only by the next season.
TOred currant is prone to many diseases that adversely affect the condition of foliage and branches, and therefore requires restoration in the autumn. For this, damaged fragments of the plant are cut off and burned, and the culture itself is treated with fungicidal preparations or Bordeaux liquid.
Only in rare cases, with viral diseases, regenerative pruning does not give the expected result, and currants must be uprooted. According to the same scheme, bushes are cleaned when pests attack. After the procedure, the plant is treated with insecticidal drugs.
Sanitary pruning begins in the spring and consists of removing branches broken by frost, broken, growing inside the crown or thickening the bush. All shoots with the first signs of disease or pest damage should also be removed. When sanitary pruning, the following recommendations are followed:
- free the middle of the bush to allow uniform illumination of all branches and to avoid thickening;
- annually in the autumn, lateral shoots are shortened by half (on the outer bud), thus stimulating branching;
- keep 3-4 shoots of different ages, thereby ensuring regular fruiting and full development of the bush;
- when trimming, the cut is located at a distance of about 5 mm from the kidney, and the secateurs are kept at an angle of 45 °;
- with the tops of two and three years of age, they do not carry out any procedures, since it is on them that the main crop is formed;
- when branching shoots (with the condition of horizontal or vertical direction of growth), the branch is shortened to the branching point;
- in order to avoid thickening, only a few of the strongest annual shoots are left on the bush;
- after four years, every fruiting branch is removed from the bush every year under the root;
- every year in the autumn, all biennial shoots are shortened by 8-10 cm (on the outer bud).
Redcurrant care after autumn pruning
Procedures for caring for red currants are not particularly difficult and consist of several main stages:
- In the spring, in addition to pruning, currant bushes are fed with urea (April), and after this, loosening is carried out, the depth of which does not exceed 7-8 cm. Due to the possibility of spring frost returning, the culture is protected from the negative effects by the smoke procedure.
- With the onset of summer, the soil is fertilized with organic matter, and foliar fertilizing (spraying) is also carried out with micronutrients. After harvesting, watering and loosening are carried out.
- In autumn, many bushes are propagated vegetatively. And at the end of the first decade (late September - early October), organic matter and mineral fertilizers are introduced into the soil. In the process of preparing plants for winter, abundant watering and pruning is carried out.
In addition, throughout the growing season it is necessary to systematically irrigate, which is 20 liters per 1 m² (frequency: 1 time in 20–25 days). Water is poured not directly under the bush, but into circular grooves that form around the bush at a distance of about 40 cm. Systematic preventive treatment of currants from various diseases and pests is also necessary.
Important! To awaken the bushes from hibernation in early spring, the currants are irrigated with warm water.