Dogwood cultivation and care
Dogwood is a deciduous perennial fruit and berry plant, which can have the life form of a tree or shrub. It is unpretentious, cold-resistant, has good immunity, and the life cycle of one plant can last 200–250 years, which is promising for industrial cultivation. Before planting dogwood on your own site, you must select the appropriate variety, as well as study the intricacies of care and propagation of the culture.
Dogwood varieties cultivated in private and industrial farms differ in a number of similar characteristics that need to be studied in advance. This information is very important when selecting plants for growing in specific climatic zones, because they do not take root everywhere. The culture in question tolerates a decrease in temperature to -30 ...- 40 ° C. It received the greatest distribution in Ukraine.
It is perfect for cultivation in various climatic conditions, in addition to high frost resistance, it is characterized by a good level of resistance to drought, disease, pests. The life form of a plant is a bush or tree. Height, regardless of life form, can vary between 2–5 m. In the wild, bushes are characterized by a height of up to 3 m, and trees can reach 15 m.
Did you know? Ground and then specially treated cornel bones are used as a substitute for coffee.
The fruits ripen from August to October. The berries are usually bright red in color, contain drupes inside, the flesh is fleshy. Several varieties with amber fruits were also bred. A full crop can be obtained only 4 years after planting or inoculation. If the tree is grown from seed, then it will begin to bear fruit no earlier than the 8th year.
The most promising for growing varieties of dogwood:
- Elena - early representative. The fruits ripen in early August, subject to cultivation in the forest-steppe zone. The main advantage is stable fruiting and high frost resistance. The fruits are round-oval, bright red, weighing up to 5 g. Yield per 1 ha is 11.7 tons.
- Vyshgorodsky - Another early instance, whose fruits ripen in early August. Resistant to frost and drought. Fruits are medium in size, 4.7 g. When fully ripened, they turn dark red. The yield per 1 ha is 10.2 tons.
- Vladimirsky - Gives large fruits weighing 6.5-7 g. The berries are dark red, when fully ripened, they are almost black. The fruits ripen from August 15 to September 1, subject to cultivation in the forest-steppe zone. Productivity - 12 t / ha.
- Amber - the fruits are small, 3.5 g each, are colored yellow. Ripen in the period from August 20 to September 20. Productivity - up to 10 t / ha.
- Petrovsky - refers to elite varieties. The fruits begin to ripen on August 20. Berries of a bottle form weigh 5.5 g each. Productivity is 12.5 t / ha.
The main attention when growing dogwood must be given to planting and preparation for it.Future vegetation productivity will depend on the correct choice of terrain and timing. A number of quality seedlings are also included in the preparations for planting. You need to buy a plant only in nurseries offering zoned varieties.
Did you know? Dogwood foliage was previously actively used in the leather industry to give the skin a green color.
A healthy, ready-to-plant seedling has a number of distinctive features:
- age - 2 years;
- the height of the ground part and appearance - 1.5 m, has 4-6 skeletal branches;
- rhizome - well developed, consisting of many small roots, elastic, evenly colored;
- bark on the trunk - without depressions, cracks, damage, painted evenly.
When to plant
Landing of dogwood seedlings in open ground is best done in September-October, depending on the climatic conditions of the region. During this period, it is already not too hot, and the plants have the opportunity to increase the root mass, preparing for wintering, and the gardener will only need to cover the trunk circle for the winter with a thick layer of compost.
Some farmers recommend planting plants in early spring, justifying this by the fact that in the autumn it will already be possible to get the first berries. But in practice, this is not always possible, because this type of vegetation will first increase the crown, and only then it will begin to form fruits. In addition, even if the berries appear, then in a very small amount. Given all this, it is better to plant in the fall.
How and where to plant
When planting the crop in question, the main thing is to take into account the level of acidity, the location of groundwater and lighting. The optimum pH for dogwood is 5–7.5. To the underground water, a distance of at least 1.5 m should be maintained, i.e. the vegetation is quite demanding on moisture.
It is better to plant the crop in question in a lighted area, on the south side of the fence or outbuilding at a distance of 5 m. Thus, the trees will be sufficiently lit by the sun in the summer and protected from draft in the winter. In relation to the neighborhood with other fruit and shrub crops dogwood is unpretentious. The main thing is to take into account the distance between plants, since the specimens under consideration differ in a powerful crown and root system, therefore, they can cause neighboring plants to wither.
The optimal distance between trees or dogwood bushes and any other should be about 5 m. The same interval should be observed in rows.Previously, the soil on the site must be prepared. At the beginning of spring, you need to clear the area of vegetation, dig it to a depth of 40 cm. After this, disinfect the soil with 3% copper sulfate concentrate (add 10 g of powder to 10 liters of water). The flow rate of the working solution is 10 l for every 1 m². A week after disinfection, the soil should be re-excavated, after having previously applied 10 kg of rotted manure and 300 wood ash on each 1 m².Step-by-step landing process:
- 2 weeks before the manipulation, dig holes 1 m deep, 60 cm in diameter. 10 cm peat, 20 cm humus, 10 cm wood ash are layered at the bottom of the pit. All this spill 20 liters of water.
- After the liquid is completely absorbed, drive a stake into the pit (it should rise 1.5 m above the soil level).
- Inspect the rhizomes of seedlings before planting, if necessary, remove damaged roots. Immerse the root system for 15 minutes in a solution of manganese (should be slightly colored pink), then for 20 minutes in a saline solution (1 kg of salt goes to 10 liters of water).
- Put the vegetation in the hole, spread the roots, sprinkle with soil.
- Seal the root zone, pour 10 liters of water, mulch to a height of 10 cm with mowed grass or compost.
- Shorten all skeletal branches by 1/3 of the length, and the stem - to 50-60 cm using a sharp secateurs.
- Garter to the support.
Video: Dogwood landing
The subtleties of dogwood care
Growing dogwood in the country is not difficult. Caring for him is quite simple. When performing basic agricultural practices, the vegetation does not even need additional treatments for diseases and pests with chemicals. The main attention should be focused on irrigation, i.e., with a lack of moisture, fruiting frequency may be observed.
Important! After watering, you need to mulch the stem circle with sand or peat. This will help to prevent the rapid evaporation of moisture from the soil.
Watering should be carried out at such a frequency that the earthen lump does not dry out. With this in mind, it is advisable to organize a drip irrigation system. If 2-3 trees are located on the site, then you can add water under the root 1-2 times a week, based on 20 liters of water per instance.
Dogwood plantings begin to be fed from the 4th year of plant life on the site.
During the season, you need to fertilize plantations only 2 times:
- during the period of swelling of the kidneys - liquid mullein diluted in a proportion of 1: 5 with water (10 l per copy);
- after harvesting, 500 g of wood ash or 100 g of superphosphate in the near-stem circle, planting into the soil to a depth of 5 cm.
During the fruit ripening period, feeding the leaf with a solution based on nettles and wood ash will be useful. For this, 1 kg of grass and 300 g of ash are placed in 10 liters of boiling water. Insist liquid for a day, then strain and spray the trees. Oilcake is used as mulch.
How and when to crop
The first stage of pruning is carried out immediately after planting. This approach stimulates the enhanced development of the root mass. In the future, sanitary scraps are carried out in the spring (end of February-March, before the buds begin to bloom) and formative in the fall (mid-September-October). Manipulations are performed with sharpened secateurs disinfected in a chloride solution (whiteness is diluted in a ratio of 1: 3 with water). This will help to avoid the risks of infection of the vegetation with diseases and pests through wound surfaces.
Important! If shoots show signs of fungal damage, they should be removed completely, even if there are several healthy kidneys.
As soon as spring begins, you should remove broken, dry, frost-damaged branches. At the same stage, you need to trim the zero shoots growing from the root. You should also completely cut the shoots that are located below the level of vaccination. If this is not done, shoots will grow, which will supplant varietal ones, and then the plant will lose its value.
Pruning in autumn
The formation of the plant aims not only to give the plantings a beautiful look, but also to stimulate the growth of new fruitful shoots. In this case, one should start from the peculiarity of dogwood to produce the largest number of berries on growths, whose age does not exceed 2 years.
To form the crown correctly, all branches should be removed during autumn pruning:
- over 2 years old;
- plants growing inside;
- located below the vaccination site.
Some dogwood varieties do not require forming trimmings at all. This includes varieties in which all branches are located at right angles to the trunk. Caring for them, only old, non-fruiting shoots are removed every 3 years.
Harvesting and storage
Harvesting the fruits of the plant in question is carried out in the period from August to September (depending on the ripening period). Peel the berries by hand. It’s not worth delaying the harvest, because fruits that have reached physical ripeness do not stay on branches, crumble, as a result they are eaten by birds and are affected by fruit rot.
The shelf life of the product will depend entirely on the conditions:
- at a temperature of +1 ... + 3 ° C in a dark room, fresh berries retain their value for 10 days;
- dried fruits are stored up to 2 years;
- frost and processed berries are edible for 12–18 months.
If you plan to transport the fruits, then the collection should be carried out at the stage of technical maturity, when they are still dense and have not begun to blacken. The product is immediately laid out in small containers lined with parchment and transported.
How to prepare dogwood for winter
The considered plant species is distinguished by high winter hardiness, therefore, the ground part does not need to be covered. Preparation for cooling consists of several activities aimed at preserving the root system, which is located in the upper layers of the soil. First, formative pruning is carried out and all the manipulations necessary according to the schedule in the autumn period (loosening, watering, fertilizing). The trunk to a height of 1 m is bleached with lime - this will help protect the bark from being eaten by rodents. After that, the trunk circle is thoroughly mulched to a height of 10 cm with a mixture of sawdust, sand and peat (1: 1: 1).
Dogwood diseases and their treatment
In the implementation of all agrotechnical requirements, dogwood planting is not affected by diseases.
Important! If on the site lesions of fungal diseases were noted, then plantings must be treated with copper sulfate of 3% concentration before the start of the growing season and after harvest for the prevention of relapse.
But if they are violated, problems such as:
- Rust - a disease caused by a fungus. Manifested by volumetric spots of rusty color on the foliage. A little later, the foliage falls, and with the growth of foci, shoots and rhizomes are affected. If the vegetation is not helped in time and the treatment is not carried out, it will die. First of all, all damaged growths are cut out. All wound surfaces are dusted with tobacco dust, and then covered with garden var. After this, spraying with the drug “Kuproksat” is carried out. 50 ml of liquid are added to 10 l of water. This is enough for processing 100 m². After 7 days, the spraying is repeated again.
- Powdery mildew - Another fungal disease. It progresses with increased humidity and heat. It appears white fluffy spots on the leaves and shoots. If the first symptoms are detected, sanitary pruning is carried out immediately, wound surfaces are treated with tobacco dust and disinfection with garden var. After that, “Hom” is used for spraying, according to the instructions.
- Spotting - also caused by fungal spores. It manifests itself as spots of various shapes and colors on foliage. It is eliminated with a 4% solution of copper sulfate (10 g of water per 10 l of water) after preliminary removal and disinfection of the affected shoots. This is enough to process 3 trees.
Of the pests, the worm is the most dangerous enemy for dogwood. It is a sucking parasite that feeds on the juice of foliage and shoots. In the process of life, the pest releases a pad (a sticky liquid) that covers the leaf, which interferes with normal photosynthesis. When it is found in the garden, it is necessary to immediately carry out sanitary pruning, and then treat the vegetation with the Fufanon preparation, according to the instructions.
Dogwood cross-pollination. This means that there must be several different varieties on the site. The buds can be pollinated independently from the inside, but fertilization will not occur. All varieties are equally well suited to each other as pollinators, i.e., regardless of the timing of fruiting, they will bloom in one period. The difference can be minimal and is 3 days, which does not affect the quality of fertilization.
Dogwood propagation can be done with seeds and vegetatively. The first option is used much less frequently. This is due to the fact that the seeds sprout for a long time and the seedlings obtained from them require mandatory vaccination, and it is difficult for an inexperienced gardener to do this. The second option involves the use of layering and cuttings. It is used much more often.
From seed (seeded)
This type of reproduction is fraught with a number of difficulties, but sometimes this is the only way to get a high-quality varietal unit. The dogwood bone is very dense, and the seed has several stages of dormancy. In this regard, the planting material planted in autumn gives the first seedlings only for 3-4 spring. But using the method of stratification, partially altered by natural conditions, you can speed up this process and get seedlings already 1.5 years after planting.
Perform a similar manipulation as follows:
- Pick well-ripened fruits, remove the flesh. The bones are washed and dried.
- Fold the planting material in a dense linen bag and bury it in the soil to a depth of 20 cm.
- Until the onset of frost, this place is abundantly watered every 2-3 days.
- When the snow falls, they begin to irrigate again.
- After a year from the moment of instillation, the bag is removed from the soil.
- The seeds are dried for a week, then immersed in a growth accelerator for 5 hours. You can use "Epin" (100 ml 2 drops of the substance).
- Planting seeds in peat pots to a depth of 10 cm and cover with a film. The soil for seedlings is mixed from garden soil, sand and peat (1: 1: 1).
Video: Breeding dogwood from bone
From time to time, the airings are planted, removing the shelter, moisten as necessary. After emergence, the film is completely removed. Set seedlings on a well-lit window sill. Until 3-4 of these sheets appear, they are abundantly watered with a spray gun, periodically adding “Epin” to water according to the manufacturer's instructions. After the appearance of 3-4 leaves, they are transplanted into a larger pot. It is best to use peat containers 2 cm larger in diameter. Throughout the year, as the plants grow, transplant 3-4 times. After a year, you can plant seedlings in the ground.
Did you know? Dogwood — one of the oldest plants on earth. The bones of culture were discovered by scientists in Neolithic settlements.
For the winter they are covered completely with agrofibre. When the seedlings turn 2 years old, they are vaccinated in the spring. To do this, you need a stalk from a fruiting plant. It is ground on one side in the form of a peg, and an incision is made on the seedling under the active bud, at a height of about 10 cm from the soil. A stalk is inserted into this section, the wound surface is treated with garden varnish and wrapped with a plaster. The winding can be removed when the buds begin to appear on the handle, and the vein of the vaccine is completely overgrown. In the next spring, the grafted process is cut off, leaving a stump up to 5 mm long. Immediately process it with tobacco dust and cover it with garden var.
This option is quite simple to execute. In the autumn, before the foliage begins to fade, the process, located as close as possible to the soil, is bent and pinned with metal brackets in several places. Then, the fixed part of the shoot is covered with soil to a height of 10 cm, and until frost it is taken care of as an adult plant by irrigation.
When several sprouts hatch from the ground, the shoot must be separated from the mother plant and dug up. The resulting branch with several sprouts is divided into equal parts (by the number of these sprouts) and they are planted in previously prepared places. This method is suitable only for shrubby forms.
Dogwood trees can also be grown from cuttings harvested in spring or autumn. To do this, when pruning, cut branches with a length of at least 15 cm with several buds. The slice is dipped in water with 3 drops of hydrogen peroxide and covered with a cropped plastic bottle. Periodically, the water is changed, about once every 3-5 days, and activated carbon is added to it (1 tablet each).
When the roots appear, planting material is rooted in individual peat pots and grown over the course of the year, irrigated and fertilized with growth accelerators.Landing on the site is carried out in spring or autumn (depending on when the planting material was cut) in a year. Dogwood can grow in almost any climate. Its life cycle is at least 200 years, and the fruits are distinguished by a bright taste and a lot of useful properties, which makes it very promising in industrial and private cultivation.