Edible Honeysuckle Pushkinskaya - main characteristics
Edible honeysuckle is a shrub plant and belongs to the family Honeysuckle. Its fruits are edible, have an elongated shape and a rich dark blue color. The historical range is China, Korea, Siberia, the Far East. The first mention of honeysuckle dates back to the XVII century. In the article, we consider such a variety of this plant as Pushkinskaya.
Description of the honeysuckle variety Pushkinskaya
Today in the world there are more than two hundred varieties of honeysuckle. About fifty of its species grow on the territory of Russia and Ukraine. Basically, these varieties are not edible. For dessert varieties of this plant, edible, from the mid 50-ies of XX century. painstaking work of breeders is underway.
A variety of honeysuckle Pushkinskaya was bred in Russia at an experimental station in Pavlovsk, Leningrad Region in the 90s of the last century. Supervised the work of Mikhail Vasilievich Lebedev. The nursery's task was to obtain regionalized dessert varieties of fruit crops, including honeysuckle.
For breeding work, sprouts brought from Kamchatka were used, so the plant is quite squat, with a dense crown, which tolerates frosts well. Varieties bred at Pavlovskaya station have the highest sugar content compared to others, however, they have lower levels of vitamins C and P.
Appearance, characteristics of berries, ripening time, yield
The variety grows in the form of a medium-sized bush with thick straight branches. In height, it reaches 1.5 m. The crown is round, of medium density. The leaves are bright green, very large and dense, in the form of an oblong oval. Pushkinskaya is a plant of early ripening (in May). The berries are large, weighing 1 g, 2 cm long and 1 cm in diameter. They have an oblong-oval shape with a roller at the top, dark blue in color, with a slight touch of wax.
The skin is thin. The taste of the berries is sweet and sour with a predominance of sweet, the smell is pleasant. They are universal in use, have positive consumer reviews (suitable for use in raw form, and for freezing, making various jams, fruit drinks, preserves).
Important! When processed with high temperatures, honeysuckle berries do not lose their beneficial properties. Jam from these fruits is a valuable source of vitamins and minerals in the winter.
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
Honeysuckle Pushkinskaya is a highly adaptive plant, which makes it attractive for growing. However, you should know and consider some features of the variety. Like any garden culture, it has its positive and negative sides:
|High productivity - up to 3 kg||Shedding fruit up to 20%|
|High frost resistance - up to –40 ° С||It does not tolerate heat, prolonged warm autumn and winter thaws (productivity and growth of cuttings decrease)|
|Early ripening - May in the middle lane||Berries ripen almost everything at the same time and can quickly crumble|
|Not susceptible to any disease||Suffers from pests|
|Dessert sweet and sour taste of fruits||Low fruit life due to thin peel|
|Unpretentious to the soil and climatic conditions||Does not tolerate groundwater nearby the root system|
Useful properties, exceptional taste, as well as the decorative appearance of the variety make it popular among gardeners. Growing honeysuckle does not cause much trouble.Observing the rules of agricultural technology during planting and care, you can timely eliminate the negative effects on the plant and get a good harvest.
Honeysuckle is unpretentious to the soil, but a more generous crop can be obtained on loamy or neutral soils. The soil should be moist, but not swampy. Groundwater should lie no closer than 1.5 m from the root system of the plant. For fruiting you need a well-lit, sheltered from the wind place.
Landing and care
For planting, use seedlings of two years of age. Cuttings with an open root system are recommended to be planted in the fall (September - October). If the root system is in the container, then the plant can be rooted throughout the warm season.
Step-by-step landing instructions:
- Five days before rooting, dig 40 × 40 cm planting pits. The distance between the seedlings should be at least 1.5 m.
- Put drainage (crushed stone) at the bottom of the landing recess.
- Add 2 buckets of compost and 1 kg of ash to the planting holes.
- To carry out plentiful watering.
- Equip a small mound in the middle of the landing recess.
- Set the seedling on the mound, carefully distribute the roots in the hole.
- Sprinkle the root system with earth and lightly tamp.
- The root neck should be at ground level.
- Mulch the trunk circle with sawdust.
In the first year after planting, you need to especially ensure that the soil does not dry out, and often water the plants. Watering the honeysuckle at the beginning of flowering (early May), shoot growth (May - early June) and during the ripening of berries is also required. The soil should be moistened to a depth of half a meter. You can verify this by digging a hole next to the bush.
Top dressing begins after 3 years from planting a seedling - twice a year (in the spring, on the remains of snow, and in the autumn, before wintering), 1 bucket of humus and 1 kg of wood ash are brought into the trunk circle. After harvesting leaves in the fall, potash and phosphate fertilizers are applied.
Cross-pollination is necessary for bearing honeysuckle. Her flowers have both sexes, but are self-infertile. Pollinate their bees, wasps, bumblebees, butterflies.At one site in the neighborhood, at least 3-4 different plant varieties should be planted.
For planting to early ripening varieties, mid-ripening and late-ripening varieties are selected as partners. The more varieties of honeysuckle in one area, the more berries will be in one bush.
Pollinators for the honeysuckle Pushkinskaya are the varieties:
- Cubic zirconia;
Important! For cross-pollination, it is necessary to select varieties whose flowering dates coincide, and the ripening of the crop occurs at different times.
Pest and Disease Control
The variety is not susceptible to fungal or viral diseases, however, it is attacked by pests:
- Aphid (yellow, apical, green) - damages leaves and fruits, sucks juice from a plant. An effective method of control is spraying in early spring (before the start of the growing season) with the preparations "Actellik", "Rogor", "Aktara".
- Mite - damages leaves, leads to the appearance of spots on them, drying out and premature fall. More often appears in a thickened crown, where there is a lot of shade and moisture. To combat the tick, it is necessary to thin out the crown of the plant. In the second half of June, the plant is treated with Confidor or Rogor (0.25%).
- Shield - Attaches to the stems and sucks the juice of the plant. For control, spraying with Aktellik or Rogor solution is used twice (the second half of June - July) with an interval of two weeks.
Cropping and shaping the crown
For the first 6-7 years, Pushkinskaya’s honeysuckle bushes are cut only as necessary. This is sanitary cutting of damaged, dry, dead branches. The top of the bush is cut in the first year to get more branches. In subsequent years, the top of the branches are not touched, since there is the largest number of buds. In plants older than seven years, when the crown is thickened, branches of the lower tier, on which there are no fruits, are removed. Branches of skeletal branches having a growth direction inside the bush are also removed. Be sure to leave at least five strong strong skeletal branches. Only small, weak shoots are removed.
Plants older than ten years are subjected to anti-aging pruning - for this, the shrub is cut in half. Plants older than twenty years are pruned under the root (highly anti-aging pruning), which gives a large increase in new growth.
Did you know? The smell of honeysuckle helps to calm the nervous system, enhance brain activity, helps to avoid stress and neurosis.
Pruning is done in the autumn before wintering, when the first night frosts occur (in the middle lane this is usually the end of October), plant vegetation slows down and leaves fall. If you need pruning in the spring, you should do this at a temperature of –5 ° C, when the snow has not yet melted , due to the fact that the honeysuckle vegetation begins very early.
Preparing for the winter
After the leaf fall has passed, it is necessary to remove the foliage and the remains of the mulch under the bushes. Fertilizers in the form of potassium salt (20 g), phosphates (30 g) and ash (1 kg) should be added. Once every four years they bring a bucket of compost into the trunk circle.
Pushkinskaya honeysuckle is a fairly frost-resistant variety and can easily tolerate frosts up to –40 ° С, therefore it does not need additional warming. However, in winter, the plant is often attacked by birds and rodents, which eat up its bark and fruitful buds. In order to preserve the shrub, it is covered with a net or synthetic fabrics..
Harvesting and transportation of the crop, shelf life of berries
Honeysuckle berries ripen in May. After ripening, the fruits crumble very quickly, so it is recommended to collect them several times a day. You can also spread polyethylene or fabric under the bush, where the ripened crop will fall. The keeping quality of the crop is not very high. Berries are stored for no more than 3-4 days in the refrigerator, and at room temperature they spoil during the day.
This is due to the fact that the skin of the fruit is very tender and easily damaged, and the flesh has a large amount of juice. Pushkin’s honeysuckle has a denser skin in comparison with other varieties, which allows it not to lose its qualities during transportation. It is worth spreading the berries in the container, laying the fabric below with a layer of no more than 10 cm so that they do not crush under their own weight. During transportation, it is desirable to maintain a temperature of no more than + 15 ° C, otherwise the berry will quickly flow and deteriorate.
Did you know? The berries of the plant are used as an antipyretic and restorative agent, and they can also be used to restore the activity of the gastrointestinal tract, avoid the formation of stones in the gall bladder, stop internal bleeding and lower blood pressure during hypertension.