Characteristics and features of the cultivation of honeysuckle varieties Gerda
Many gardeners are interested in the details of growing Gerda cultivars in the honeysuckle beds. Below is a description of it, the history of breeding, characteristics, pollinators, as well as features of planting, harvesting and storage of crops, methods of reproduction and methods of combating diseases and pests.
This honeysuckle variety was created in 1987 by breeders from Siberia. Prior to this, Michurin was still working on selection. To remove Gerda, the Blue Bird variety was combined with a mixture of pollen collected from different regions of Russia. And already in 1994, this honeysuckle was noted in the register of the Barnaul Federal Scientific Center for Agrobiology. Breeders from Barnaul tried to make Gerda mature early.
Gerda is a mid-early variety belonging to the species of Kamchatka honeysuckle. Grows in the form of a bush with a rounded compact crown. It has oval leaves of light green color and light blue fruits with a sweet and sour taste and delicate pulp.
Did you know? The people call honeysuckle "shameless." The appearance of this nickname is due to the fact that the bark of some species of this plant falls and flakes, exposing the branches.
Visually, the shape of the fruit resembles barrels. They are edible and reach a weight of 0.7–0.9 g. Berries picked from this perennial shrub can be consumed both raw and processed.
Honeysuckle is used as a treatment for many diseases. In particular - with exhaustion, anemia, colds, tonsillitis, deterioration of brain activity, etc.
- salicylic and acetic aldehyde;
- folic acid;
- tannins, etc.
Gerda's honeysuckle helps to strengthen the immune system, contributes to the normal development of the circulatory system. The berries of the plant have anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects. Also, the plant contains leukoanthocyanins, which prevent the formation of tumors. Bushes of this variety have high frost and drought tolerance, as well as good productivity. Quantitative indicators are described below.
Frost and drought resistance
This culture is winter-hardy and is able to withstand temperatures of -40 ... -50 ° C. To preserve the buds, a temperature of -8 ° C is critical. Honeysuckle tolerates hot weather well, however, during the ripening period, they need additional watering so that they grow faster.
The yield of honeysuckle is 1.0–1.6 kg. Berries do not crumble, have many useful properties. This variety is considered one of the most delicious. Fruits appear already in the second year after planting the bush, but really large volumes of the crop are obtained for 3-4 years.
Any Kamchatka honeysuckle is suitable for pollination, but it is best if the pollinator is a plant of the variety Assol, Chelyabinka or Kuvshinovidnaya. Inedible honeysuckle shrubs should not be placed next to Gerda, because after pollination with them, this variety may itself become unsuitable for eating. To increase the dynamics of crop yields, it is recommended to plant nearby plants with honeysuckle that are excellent not only in variety, but also in terms of ripening.
Planting edible honeysuckle has its own characteristics. So, in order to get a good harvest, you need to choose the right planting dates and place in the garden. It is also recommended to select high quality seed and take into account the arrangement of beds.
Gerd should honeysuckle from August to mid-October.These dates take into account the growing season. Already in the middle of summer, shoot growth stops.
Site selection, well preparation
It is best if the site for planting will go along the fence or any other hedges. This is necessary to protect plants from the wind, especially from the north.
The soil should be:
- slightly acidic or neutral;
- medium or slightly podzolized;
- loamy or sandy loam.
Important! For the sugar content of berries and large volumes of the crop, honeysuckle should be planted in a well-lit place.
If the honeysuckle will be in a place where there is a possibility of flooding, it is necessary to make a good drainage. The bush does not like stagnation of water, therefore, without proper care, it may simply die due to suppuration of the roots.
The holes between the bushes should be done at a distance of 1.5–2 m - this corresponds to the area of plant nutrition. Their depth should be 30-40 cm, with a diameter of 25 cm. It is recommended to change the landing site every 20 years.
Selection and preparation of planting material
It is better to purchase a seedling in a container or plastic bag - this prevents the roots from drying out. So much more likely that the plant will take root. Be sure to inspect the seedling for pests and diseases. The shoots should be even, and the leaves should be uniform green. Before planting, it is necessary to remove broken branches and damaged roots, moisten the remaining ones in the earthen mash.
Important! It is better if the seedlings are from 50 cm to 1 m high. Low ones may simply not have time to take root, and high ones get used to certain conditions and may die during transplantation.
To plant a plant, use the following planting scheme:
- Dig holes 40 cm deep. Keep a distance of 1.5 m between them.
- Fill each hole in 2/3 of the fertile soil layer.
- Set the plant. Too much to drive the seedling into the ground is not worth it; you should straighten the roots, lower them into the hole and gently sprinkle with earth. The root neck should be either at ground level, or 3 cm deeper.
- After planting, it is necessary to water the plant abundantly, at a rate of 10 liters per bush. No longer needed, as the roots may rot.
- Mulching is required. For this, humus or peat are suitable.
In order for the berries to be sweet and the bush to grow rapidly, it is necessary to feed the plant. Gerda's honeysuckle is usually fertilized in spring. To do this, use mineral substances, in particular ammonium nitrate, at the rate of 30 g per bush.
Important! Be sure to water the plant, especially in the summer. From drying out, the yield decreases, the taste of the fruit deteriorates.
Also, once every 3-4 years, anti-aging pruning by thinning should be performed. The best time for this is from early October to November. They work with aging skeletal branches - while cutting off their tops, rather than completely removing the branch. After anti-aging thinning, you can do decorative pruning.
Harvesting and storage
Since Gerda is a mid-early variety, its fruits ripen by June 15–22. When harvesting, it should be placed in a shallow container with a thin layer. Otherwise, soft berries will just go bad.
Honeysuckle fruits are not stored for a long time, even in the refrigerator, so it is better to freeze the berries. They can then be used as a filling for baking or cake decorating. Delicious cocktails are also made from fruits. If you plan to store the crop in the basement, then it is better to mash the berries with sugar, with a calculation of 1: 1, and place in a non-metallic container.
So that the bush does not freeze in the cold seasons, it is necessary to protect it. For this, mulching with horse humus is used around the near-trunk zone of the plant. This keeps the soil at the roots loose and moderately moist.
Did you know? Only dark-colored fruits are suitable for eating. Some of the red and orange berries are poisonous.
The most suitable period for the propagation of honeysuckle is May-June. Planting cuttings is best suited for this. For planting, slightly bending, breaking shoots are used. They are cut from the middle of the branch at an angle of 45 °. The optimal length of the cuttings is from 7 to 12 cm.
You can also grow honeysuckle from seeds. However, this technique is quite complicated, it requires preliminary preparation and stratification of planting material, so it is mainly used by breeders.
If the garden already has young bushes, then you can apply the division method. To do this, dig a bush in March or September and use a secateurs to divide it into 2-3 parts. Bushes older than 5 years are not suitable for this method.
Diseases and Pests
The main diseases threatening the conservation of shrubs are:
- Phytoviruses. A typical sign of this infection is light green spots on leaf blades and mottling along the veins in the center. When a disease occurs, the affected branches are burned. It is necessary to monitor the condition of neighboring plants, because this virus can also be on potatoes and cucumbers.
- Fungal diseases. Manifested as spotting on the leaves. With the further development of the disease, they deform and dry out. To prevent this, it is necessary in early spring to spray the bush with a solution of 0.2% baseazole and copper-soap liquid, with the calculation of 100 g of copper sulfate per 10 l of water.
Did you know? According to popular beliefs, a honeysuckle bush growing at home will bring good luck. If its branches hang over the door, then the inhabitants are protected from fever.
Having familiarized with the botanical description, the history of selection and the rules for growing honeysuckle of the Gerda variety, you can get good quality fruits. And thanks to the study of breeding methods and techniques, you will have the opportunity to grow berries on an industrial scale or for retail trade.