Nutria as a business: profitable or not, drawing up a business plan, content and marketing of products
Breeding nutria is attracting more and more attention from farmers. These rodents native to South America are appreciated not only for their skin, but also for dietary meat.
Nutriding as a business: advantages and disadvantages
Breeding nutria can be very profitable. The cost of maintaining nutria is not so great and can quickly pay off.
- Nutri breeding has the following advantages over other areas of animal husbandry:
- They can be kept not only for the sake of the skin, but also for the meat.
- Nutria early become sexually mature and easily breed, prolific.
- Availability of feed. Part of the feed can be grown by yourself.
- Precocity. These animals can be sent for slaughter for the sake of skins and meat from 6-8 months.
- They have high immunity and with proper care they will not have to incur losses due to the death of animals.
- Such a business has disadvantages:
- The need for a reservoir and maintaining the purity of water in it.
- Some people find it unacceptable for them to eat rodent meat, which is also nutria. This can slow down the sale of meat products and lower its cost.
- In winter, these animals should be provided with a room whose temperature is not lower than + 15 ° С. For queens and cubs, it should be even higher - + 16 ... + 20 ° С.
Not everyone likes that nutria have strong incisors that can bite a finger when bitten. But not everything is so scary. These are peaceful and shy animals, and you need to handle them calmly. Some start them up as a pet, as they are easily tamed and friendly to people.
Important! When dealing with nutria, you do not need to stroke or touch your back - this annoys the animal. You can iron the abdomen.
First of all, you need to decide on the direction of breeding nutria (obtaining meat, skins or for the sale of young animals), choose a breed and find a place of sale. Then you should calculate the costs of the purchase and maintenance of animals, registration of permits.
The initial capital required for nutriding includes:
- insulated barn;
- livestock purchase;
- the cost of cages, aviaries and inventory;
- arrangement and communications;
- veterinarian services;
After all cost calculations, they should be increased by 20%, since the probability of unforeseen expenses always exists. Costs will start to pay off only after 6–8 months, when the first offspring grows up, and they will fully pay off only after 2-3 years. When purchasing nutria, one male per 5 females should be taken. It is not necessary to immediately take a large number of livestock - these animals will quickly breed naturally.
Important! If you decide to engage in nutraceuticals, it is worth asking the local authorities about the availability of programs to promote small business in the agricultural sector.
If nutrace breeding is aimed at obtaining skins, it is better to buy animals of the same color and one breed. Skins of the same type will be more readily bought. If desired and the availability of the necessary tools and materials, cages and aviaries can be done independently. It is worth considering the option of closed production - by ourselves to grow feed or at least part of it, as well as independently make skins and make fur products.This will make production more profitable and reliable, less dependent on price spikes. If nutrace breeding is a completely new and unfamiliar business for you, then for testing you can get a couple of animals for divorce for personal needs and in practice get acquainted with breeding nutria for personal needs, and only then start a business.
Estimated starting capital
Starting capital for 15 females (+3 males) will consist of the following amounts:
- purchase of individuals of good breeds for breeding will be at least 20-24 thousand rubles;
- housing, cells and their arrangement - at least 70 thousand rubles;
- feed supply - 20 thousand rubles;
- veterinarian services, permits and other expenses - 30 thousand rubles.
Part of these costs can be reduced by growing feed and making cages for keeping on their own or by purchasing young animals instead of adult animals, but it is better to immediately focus on the amount of about 154 thousand rubles.
At home, it is better to do it yourself and with the help of family members, especially at the initial stage. With a small mini-farm and 2 people can handle. If volumes grow, and there are no problems with sales, it makes sense to expand and hire employees, including a veterinarian.In any case, during the period of slaughter of animals, it is better to invest in finding and hiring a specialist in dressing hides, as this will increase the payback of the enterprise.
Advertising and marketing of products
One should take an interest in the demand for skins and ways of marketing even before the start of the nutria breeding activity.
Did you know? Farmers in Argentina began breeding nutria for the first time since the end of the 19th century. At the beginning of the XX century. they were brought to the USA and the countries of Eurasia. In the 30s of the last century, they appeared in the USSR.
To do this, you should first find out the demand for skins, and then conclude contracts with the following sales points:
- procurement points;
- factories for sewing fur products;
- private tailoring ateliers.
The meat can be sold through these channels:
- catering enterprises;
- meat processing plants;
- point in the market.
You can also offer your products (meat, skins, young animals, mating services) on the Internet on popular private announcement platforms or portals.
By calculating the cost and estimated revenues based on current purchase prices, profitability can be determined. The average purchase price of skins is 300–600 rubles. (depending on their quality), meat - 300-500 rubles. for 1 kg. One carcass weighs an average of 2 kg. If we consider that on average 15 females per year will give 2 litters of 5 individuals each, which will be slaughtered from 6–8 months, the estimated profit from the sale of the first litter will be from 67500 to 97,500 rubles.
That is, the costs will pay off in 2-3 years. In subsequent years, expenses will go only to feed, taxes, veterinarian services. Key factors affecting profitability will be feed costs and marketing. Purchase prices for feed and products (skins and meat) may vary and may be subject to fluctuations.
The cultivation of our own feeds and established sales significantly increase the profitability of the enterprise. According to reviews of nutrient breeders, profitability sometimes reaches 200%. Therefore, when calculating profitability, you should ask about feed prices and purchase. It should be borne in mind that 47 kg of feed per year is spent on 1 skin.
Nutria are divided into two groups:
- Standard. This breed is the closest to wild relatives, prolific and unpretentious. She has mostly brown or steel wool with a lighter belly. Their skins have the lowest price. The usual weight is 5–7 kg and the number of puppies in the litter is 5–6 pcs.
- Colored. These breeds are bred by breeders, and they are conditionally divided into dominant and recessive. When crossing a representative of a dominant individual with a standard one, cubs with a valuable color can be obtained. Recessive breeds with a standard do not cross. Their fertility and weight gain are, with some exceptions, the same as standard nutrias.
All breeds can be grown for meat and skins, but non-standard color nutria fur is more in demand and more expensive.
Dominant colored breeds of nutria:
- Azerbaijani white. It has white fluffy fur with a uniform structure of hair and underfur. When crossed with the standard, only part of the offspring will be white.
- Black. It has a very thick dark fur, a good rate of weight gain and fertility. Very similar to the standard breed.
- Golden. It has a popular golden fur and is gaining 6-8 kg body weight. For a luxurious shine of wool you will need high-quality feed. There are only 3-4 cubs in the litter.
- Italian white. They have downfoot endowed with a creamy tone. When crossed with standard nutrias, cubs with a silver color are obtained.
- Beige. It can have skin colors and a down from beige gray to dark silver.
- Lemon. The coat is warm orange. Demanding on growing conditions - temperature, hygiene, feed. Otherwise, do not get a high-quality skin.
- Silver. Derived by crossing beige and Italian breeds. It turned out animals with a valuable unusual color and dense undercoat of dark color. They weigh about 8 kg and have a high slaughter yield of tasty meat - 53%.
- Snowy. They have a snow-white color of wool of excellent quality. Gaining body weight up to 10 kg. Bring 4-5 puppies at a time.
- Mother of Pearl. They have a beautiful coat of silver-gray tones with excellent wear. Skins in appearance are no worse than mink fur. Fertility is slightly below the standard - 4–5 puppies.
- Pastel. It turns out when crossing a golden and black breed. The coat is colored in brownish tones and is also similar to pastel mink fur. Females bring 4 cubs at a time.
When breeding nutria, two methods are used:
- Homogeneous (homogeneous). Parents with the same characteristics are selected, that is, the female and the male have the same color and quality of coat, similar body constitution.
- Heterogeneous. A female and a male with various characteristics are selected to improve some qualities.
Breeding nutria in time is year-round or seasonal. The latter option is most cost-effective and is practiced on large farms. It is beneficial when puppies are born at the beginning of the year and go to slaughter during the cold season. The best quality skins are obtained when slaughtering animals from October to February.
Content Terms and Conditions
For successful breeding of nutria they need to create good conditions and provide proper care.
Important! Nutria can do without a pool, but to get the best quality skins, it is desirable that it be. It should be borne in mind that the absence of a reservoir is better than a reservoir of dirty water that causes illness.
To do this, provide:
- Body of water. 70–80 L of water is diverted to each animal.
- Clean water and balanced fresh food.
- Cell area for a pair of nutria should be from 1 m².
- Cold protection. The optimum temperature of the nutrient content is in the range +15 ... + 25 ° С. Do not allow the temperature to drop below + 8 ° C. In cold weather, cells are brought into a warm room with thick litter.
It is necessary to take care of the presence of feeders and drinking bowls. They can be purchased or made by yourself.
These types of feeders are distinguished:
- Standard. The most popular form, which resembles a large and elongated trough.
- Day nursery. They have high sides, so they are used for hay, fresh grass. They are attached to the wall of the house or put in an aviary.
- Bunker. It is very convenient to use. Animals cannot accidentally turn it over, which means that the room will not be polluted.
For drinking use drinkers made of solid material, to which it is necessary to provide free access at any time of the day. The automatic option is good, but you can use any convenient capacity.
Did you know? Nutria meat contains low cholesterol and a lot of protein (20%), is easily absorbed by the body. It is useful for pregnant women and children, athletes and bodybuilders.
The following types of drinkers are distinguished:
- Vacuum. They are made of a container (can), which is filled with water, closed, turned over and placed in a bowl.Water enters the bowl as needed.
- Nipple. In this case, the animals press with their tongue a ball with a nipple, after which water flows from the tank. This type ensures the purity of the liquid for drinking - no debris enters it.
Video: nutria nipple drinker
Site selection and arrangement
When choosing a site, drafts, strong wind gusts, noise sources must be eliminated, but there must be a shadow. The territory should be divided into a zone for water procedures, food and walking.
When arranging a room for keeping animals, the following should be considered:
- 500 animals require approximately 0.6 hectares of land;
- cells, pits, aviaries and houses should have separation for walking, sleeping, eating, raising offspring;
- all wooden sections of the cage are covered with a metal crate, so that the animals do not gnaw them and get out;
- there should be a bed of hay on the floor;
- the area for maintenance is calculated on the basis of the ratio - per 1 animal 3 m²;
- the area for walking needs to be poured with concrete and limited to a fence of at least 1 m in height from a metal mesh.
A pond is also required. For living use cages or houses with an open entrance to the shared pool. You can put cells with a closed input-output. In this case, a feeder, a drinking bowl and a container of water are placed in each of them. Cells are placed outside during the warm season, and indoors during the winter. They can be simple and in several tiers.1 - a room for the maintenance of nutria; 2 - transitional corridor; 4 - feed mill; 5 - pantry for storage of root crops; 6 - basement for storage of root crops; 7 - workshop. The capital house for winter living is built of bricks and boards with access to walking. Such dwellings can be made of concrete. Aviary is possible only in areas with a warm winter. Pit content is used in regions with a mild climate. The walls of the dug pit are sheathed with slate, the floor is made of concrete. It is divided into zones and placed houses that are insulated in the cold season.
Seasonal Feeding Features
Nutria do not suffer from overeating, but with insufficient feeding can be aggressive towards other individuals. A well-chosen diet has a positive effect on the quality of meat and skins. Ideal for feeding compound feeds, but it is expensive, but high-quality feeds contain all the necessary components for the normal development of nutria. Dry feed must be soaked with water. It is mainly used in cold weather. The nutria menu is adjusted according to the season.
Important! Nutria well eat young shoots and branches of birch, poplar, oak, willow. Linden and bird cherry nutria will not be consumed. Poisonous plant crops are also excluded - buttercup, celandine, sleep grass.
In the summer, reeds, grass, tree shoots, root crops are used for food, and hay in winter. For food, you can use weeds after weeding the garden plot, clover, lupine, sow thistle, corn, sunflower, grape shoots, beet tops and carrots are suitable. At the same time, to reduce the acidity of the tops, it is sprinkled with chalk. The green mass in the summer menu is at least 300-400 g per day, as part of such feed is trampled, and it becomes the litter.For the winter, hay from dandelion, quinoa, fireweed, coltsfoot is required. You can give potatoes, apples, cabbage and beets, Jerusalem artichoke and other seasonal vegetables, fruits and berries. You can also give waste from their processing. From cereals, rye, corn, barley are suitable, and from legumes - peas. They are given in steamed or ground form. In winter, it is necessary to support the body of animals with vitamin and mineral supplements. Harvested hay, brooms from branches, vines and shoots, grass and straw flour are used.
Hay is included in the diet once every 2-3 days. In severe frosts, it is given more often, since dry grass goes to the litter for additional heating. Branches give 1 time in 7 days. In cold weather, vegetables are given carrots, beets, cabbage. The recommended rate of such a product is 400 g per 1 individual. It is useful to include boiled pumpkin. It is mixed with dry feed. Silo increases acidity, so it is given only in small portions.
They give wet mixers - cereals from wheat, corn, mixed fodder. It is useful to add potatoes or peel them. In such mixtures should be placed herbal flour, which should be at least 12–20% of the total volume of food. In winter, especially closer to spring, when vitamin deficiency is felt, it is good for seed nutrients to germinate and introduce cereal grains into the diet.
Vitamins and Minerals
In order for nutria to have a strong body and grow normally, their food should be enriched with the necessary trace elements. To do this, take salt, crushed chalk and bone meal. They are added to food if the farm does not use industrial feeds that already contain the required minerals. Proteins of animal origin must be in the diet - bone meal, dairy products.Fodder yeast is given at the rate of 5-15 g per 1 nutria per day. If the feed includes vegetable and animal proteins, then adding this component to food is not worth it. The source of plant proteins are algae (chlorella, spirulina). It is good to use vitamin complexes, which are shown to fur animals. They are necessarily fed to females awaiting offspring.
Puberty and the ability to mate occur at the age of 3-4 months, but at this time the females have not yet fully grown to bear offspring. The young’s strengths still go to their own growth and development, so the offspring will be weak and may not survive. Recommended age - from 6 to 7 months.
Important! Female nutria can not be happened for more than 3 years in a row, since then they show aggression to their offspring, up to its destruction.
There are several methods for propagating nutria:
- Manual. In this case, the female is seated to the male. After 7 days of marriage, the female is returned back.
- Mowing method. It is used for young animals that have not yet happened. When choosing this method, several females and males are planted in one aviary. In this case, you should only take nutria with an agreeable nature of behavior, so that there is no squabble and fights.
- Family method. In the enclosure, one male and several females are kept for cohabitation (no more than 5).
For each method, you must select a separate cell or aviary. If for the manual method a simple cell is enough for two individuals, then for other methods there should be more space. With the mowing method, it is necessary to equip the aviary. For fertilization, more active males are selected who are more interested in the opposite sex than in food. Males who could not conceive offspring are rejected.
Video: nutria mating methods
Pregnancy and puppy
In females, pregnancy lasts 127–132 days. Puppies are born with open eyes and are covered with hair. A pregnant female should not be disturbed once again. On the eve of the sensation, you need to put more litter so that the babies born do not freeze. The birth process mainly occurs at night. It lasts from 20 minutes. up to 2 hours, depending on the number of newborns. As a rule, the female gives birth without problems and independently.
The born baby nutria already have teeth, and after 3-4 days they can be given solid food. But the main source of food is breast milk. After 21 days, the milk of the nursing female begins to decrease. Upon reaching 49-50 days, the cubs do not need milk, and the mother is sedimented from them.
After reaching 4 months, they are seated on the cells by sex. For food, young animals are given feeds that have a lot of fiber. Compound feed is mixed with hay or fresh grass in a ratio of 10: 1. In the feed should be protein 13-14% and animal protein 5-10%. This will quickly gain weight.
To eliminate the appearance of diseases and parasites in nutria, it is necessary to observe hygiene standards for their content:
- provide good lighting and airing in the housing for maintenance;
- make sure that there is no dampness;
- disinfect cells every 3 months;
- provide high-quality feed, and process grain with steam;
- give only clean water, which should be changed daily; in winter it needs to be slightly warmed up;
- regularly disinfect feeders and drinking bowls;
- monitor the cleanliness of dishes for cooking;
- with water under pressure from the hose, wash off the fluff from the net on the ranges;
- every day you need to clean the cells or houses from feces and dirty litter;
- run the water from the walk into a sump or sewer system.
Disease and Prevention
Nutria are quite strong animals and have good immunity, but can get sick with improper care. Infections are the most dangerous, therefore it is important to get ahead of the problem in a timely manner and take measures to eliminate it. A sick animal will sit in a corner of the house, burrowing into the litter. Infection can occur through water, food, sick animals, insects.
Did you know? Fat nutria is heated at a temperature of + 28 ° C and is easily absorbed by the body. It is used in folk medicine for colds and as a skin care product.
The main infectious diseases:
- Salmonellosis. The disease spreads quickly in the warm period. Symptoms of its occurrence are lethargy, loss of appetite, general apathy, gastrointestinal upset, bloating, tearing, an increase and subsequent decrease in temperature. If untreated, death can occur in two days. Treat with "Levomycetinum" or "Furazolidoneum".
- Pasteurellosis. Often this disease first affects young growth. Its signs are lethargy, refusal of food, tearing, nasal discharge with blood, shortness of breath, cramps, and even paralysis. This disease develops rapidly and leads to mortality of the herd. Usually infected animals should be slaughtered.
- Colibacillosis. Often it affects young animals through food or water. Symptoms are diarrhea, refusal to eat, exhaustion. For therapy, serum, antibacterial drugs and vitamins are used.
- Streptococcosis. It rarely appears. Infection comes from sick animals. The disease spreads rapidly. Symptoms are lethargy, lack of appetite, apathy. Inflammatory processes occur in the tissues of the joints, discharge from the nose and diarrhea appear. Antibacterial agents are used for treatment.
Worms and other parasites can appear in nutria, so anthelmintic drugs are added to food or drink.
General preventive measures must be observed:
- To vaccinate.
- Provide high-quality feed, and carry out their processing with steam.
- Follow the recommended hygiene standards (monitor the cleanliness of the home, walking, water).
- Place a mat soaked in creolin solution before entering.
- Buy animals only on prosperous farms and quarantine them.
- Give weak specimens for slaughter.
- Regularly clean and clean your home and pool. Twice a year to carry out disinfection of cells, equipment, inventory and walking with the use of appropriate means.
- Eliminate the appearance of ticks with the help of special shampoos, powders and aerosols.
- To fight rodents.
- Have a first aid kit to assist.
Nutrient farming can be profitable if you approach it properly. Before you start the nutria breeding business, you need to calculate the cost estimate for their acquisition and maintenance, draw up a business plan and determine the distribution channels, as well as familiarize yourself with the features of their breeding.