Golden currant cultivation
Many will be surprised, but currants are not only black or red, but also golden. This deciduous shrub with golden yellow flowers native to America has long been successfully grown with us. The article is devoted to varieties of this type, agricultural techniques of planting and care, problems encountered during cultivation.
Golden currant: features varieties
23 varieties of golden currant are listed in the State Register of the Russian Federation. Consider the features of some of them:
- August night from the Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution “Federal Scientific Center named after I.V. Michurin” (2019), authorship of T. Zhidekhina and O.S. Rodyukova. Maturing late, bush of medium growth, medium growth. The leaves are green, slightly fleecy, without a glossy gloss, the edges are serrated, they consist of 5 blades. The berries are spherical, grow up to 1.7 g. The skin is not thick, painted black, the pulp is moist, the taste is sweet and sour, the aroma is fresh. From 1 ha you can pick about 112 tons of berries. Frost-resistant, drought-resistant, almost not affected by anthracnosis and gall aphids.
- Altargana from the Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution "Buryat Scientific Research Institute of Agriculture" (2016) by T.I. Voronina and N.K. Guseva. The ripening period is medium, a tall plant, directly growing. Leaves of green color, with a slight glossy gloss, not pubescent, have 3 lobes, serrated edges. Berries can reach 1.2 g, have a spherical shape, the skin is black with a blue tint, the flesh is tender, sweet and sour to taste. From 1 ha you can get about 94 centners of the crop. Successfully resists pests and diseases, frost-resistant, average drought tolerance.
- Barnaul from the Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution "Federal Altai Scientific Center of Agrobiotechnology" (2006). The ripening period is medium, the bush is tall, the density is medium. Leaves are green, without gloss, smooth, serrated edges. Berries resemble an oval, each weighs about 1 g on average, are covered with medium-density black skin, the flesh is soft, moist, sweet and sour, and the aroma is fresh. With 1 ha, you can get about 166 centners of the crop. Needs pollinators. Frost-resistant, tolerates the absence of rain, it is not affected by diseases and pests.
- Venus from the Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution Ufa Federal Research Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences (1999). Early ripening, a bush of high growth, grows weakly. The berries are shaped like an oval, they are covered with black skin, the flesh is sweet and sour, fragrant. From 1 ha you can get about 161 centners of berries with an average weight of 1.5 g each. Resistance to diseases and pests is high, to frost - above average.
- Zarina from the Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution Ufa Federal Research Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences (2011). Ripening time is average, the bush is tall, slightly sprawling. Spherical berries weigh 2.5–3.4 g, with 1 ha they can be obtained about 191 c. The skin is medium thick, covered with a pile, painted in orange with a yellow tint. The pulp is moist, sweet, its taste was evaluated by tasters at 4.9 points. Resistance to diseases and pests is standard, to frost and drought - high.
- Sultry mirage from the Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution “Federal Scientific Center named after I. Michurin” (2016), authorship T. Average ripening time, shrub height, shoots, leaves, buds and medium-sized fruit brush. The flowers are brightly colored. The berries have a spherical shape, the skin is medium thick, painted in a bright orange color, the flesh is sweet and sour taste with a fresh aroma. From 1 ha, you can get about 74 c fruits. High resistance to frost, drought, heat, almost does not suffer from diseases and pests.
- Find from the Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution Ufa Federal Research Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences (2011). Ripening time later. Bush height, shoots, leaves, fruit brush and flowers are medium, small buds.From 1 ha, the variety produces 200 c of spherical berries weighing 2.5–3.5 g each, sweet taste, very dark in color. It resists frost, heat, drought, resistance to diseases and pests is standard.
- Siberian sun from the Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution "Federal Altai Scientific Center of Agrobiotechnology" (2006). Ripening time is average, the bushes are tall, shoots of medium size. Fruits with berries of a gentle sour-sweet taste, painted in yellow. With an average weight of 1 g per 1 ha, they can get about 122 c. High resistance to frost, disease, pests. Pollination is required.
- Fatima from the Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution Ufa Federal Research Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences (2011). Ripening time is early. Bush height, shoots, leaves, medium fruit brush, small buds, large flowers, bright yellow. The shape of the berries is slightly oblong, the skin is medium-thick, slightly fleecy, black. The pulp is juicy, sweet and sour, the aroma is fresh. Tasters rated the taste at 4.9 points. On 1 ha, about 200 kg of berries ripen weighing 2.7-3.6 g each. To frost, drought, heat, resistance is high, to diseases and pests - average.
- Shafak from the Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution Ufa Federal Research Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences (1999). Ripening time is average, bushes, shoots and leaves are medium in size. Blooms with brightly colored flowers. Berries in the form of drops are densely located on the fruit brush, covered with medium-thick fleecy skin of dark red color with a gray-blue coating. The pulp is moist, the taste is sweet with sourness. From 1 ha, you can collect about 160 tons of berries with an average weight of 1.7 g each. Resistance to frost is average, pests and diseases are excellent.
Important! Golden currant is not a hybrid of blackcurrant and gooseberry, it is a separate species native to North America.
In the XIX century the Krandal variety came to Russia, having worked on it, I.V. Michurin brought out the Krandal Seedling, which became the progenitor of all other varieties in Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and Uzbekistan.
The procedure for growing golden currants is slightly different from black.
Site selection and soil preparation
The culture can grow on soils of any composition, however, if the area has swampy clay soil, its growth will be very slow. In this case, add sand to the soil. You can plant on flat ground or on a slope.
Since the roots of golden currants can go deep up to 2 m, you need to make sure that the ground water lies deep in the place of planting.
If this condition cannot be fulfilled, it is recommended to dig a deep hole and line its bottom with sheets of slate, iron, polycarbonate, linoleum or similar materials to direct the plant's root system in breadth.
Did you know? In the USA, golden currants are more popular than black currants, because during the 20th century to grow the latter was prohibited by law, the reason is the spread of the fungus Cronartium ribicola.
The culture is demanding on light, so the sun should shine on the site, although partial shade is allowed. It is better to exclude drafts. When digging a hole, go down 0.5-0.6 m down and make a width of about 1 m. Leave about 2 m between the holes. Mix the excavated soil with 2/3 of a compost bucket, 200 g of superphosphate, 200 g of ash and put on the bottom so that the root neck of the sapling dropped into the pit is 7 cm there. Lower the sapling, sprinkle with soil, tamp and pour 1/2 bucket of water.
Between the preparation of the pit and the landing, at least 3 weeks should pass, preferably 2-3 months.
For planting, both autumn and spring are suitable. Autumn planting can be carried out from mid-September to the end of the month, spring - when the buds swell.
Golden currant care includes:
- top dressing;
- treatment from pests and diseases.
Although golden currant bears fruit without top dressing, to improve the yield for each bush older than 1 year, you need to make 1/2 bucket of humus, 100 g of ash, 20 g of superphosphate in the autumn, and bird droppings or rotted manure in spring.
Weeding, watering, cultivating
So that weeds do not draw useful substances from the soil, it is recommended to weed them. Mulch sprinkled around the bushes can interfere with their growth. Young plants are watered once every 2 weeks, adults need watering if there is a severe drought. After watering, it is recommended to loosen the ground.
Important! If after a severe drought in the beginning of summer, heavy rains begin during the ripening of the berries, the latter may crack, so during the period of fruit formation the bush needs to be watered at least once with a bucket of water.
Spring currant pruning
Golden currants are suitable for hedges, but curly pruning from the bushes will not work. It is used for a single landing, forming a standard method. In the future, you need to cut branches older than 6 years, remove those that interfere with the development of the bush.
Currants, which are grown in order to obtain berries, are cut as follows:
- immediately after disembarkation leave about 7 cm;
- at the annual shrub, 4 of the most developed branches are left, pruning by a third;
- at a two-year-old, 1/3 of the length of last year's branches is cut off and an additional 3-4 young leaves are left;
- the three-year procedure is repeated.
Fig. 1. Currant pruning: a - annual seedling; b - a biennial bush; c, d - shortening of shoots. Fig. 2. Currant bush before anti-aging pruning (a), after it (b) and pruning of a neglected bush (c).
Why does not bear fruit?
There are reasons for the lack of berries on golden currants:
- Lack of sunlight - if planting is carried out near buildings or tall trees.
- Excess nitrogen in the soil - if fertilizers are not applied correctly.
- Defeat by disease or pest - if the variety is unstable.
- There is no pollinator - not all varieties necessarily need a nearby pollinator, but when it is available, productivity increases.
- The bush is thickened with uncircumcised branches - without access to sunlight there will be no flowering and ovaries.
- Branches are more than 7 years old - old branches do not bear fruit.
- High groundwater level - under such conditions, the plant is poorly developed.
- Flowering has passed too early - pollinating insects have not woken up yet, ovaries do not form.
- An unhealthy seedling has been planted that cannot develop normally.
- The seedling was too adult, over 2 years old, and did not take root well.
- A bush older than 10 years - there was no anti-aging pruning.
Did you know? There are more vitamin C in unripe currant berries than in ripe ones.
What can be done to get the crop:
- comply with landing technology;
- fertilize in accordance with the dosage;
- plant varieties resistant to diseases and pests;
- for varieties prone to damage by diseases and pests, carry out preventive treatment;
- planted near pollinating varieties;
- to trim;
- organize drainage for marshy soil;
- choose the right seedlings;
- remove winter shelter on time;
- Do not use too warm water in the spring for irrigation.
Golden currant is known for its unpretentiousness and variety of varieties, many of which are resistant to frost, drought, disease and pests.. It does not require constant care, can be grown on soils with a heavy composition. However, non-compliance with the considered conditions for its cultivation may lead to a lack of yield.