How to plant currants: instructions
In mid-autumn and early spring, the time comes for planting currants. Regardless of the variety - red, black or white, currants are among the most common shrub crops for planting in the garden. In the article you will find information on how to plant currants and take care of them in a personal plot.
How to choose healthy and strong seedlings
Reproduction of currants is possible by cuttings and layering. Layers are formed from separate branches pressed to the ground and sprinkled with earth. Cuttings are harvested in the fall from the powerful shoots of the current year. In the spring they are rooted in a substrate, and then planted in a permanent place.At the market or in the nursery, the gardener is offered two-year-old rooted seedlings.
External characteristics of planting material:
- powerful root system, consisting of three main roots and many small ones;
- the roots should not be damaged, without rot and deforming thickenings;
- several straight shoots with gray bark and unopened buds.
If the plant is in a pot, then the roots should completely cover the soil layer. You need to plant such a plant without disturbing the roots and without separating the soil in which the bush grew in the nursery. As for varietal diversity, consider what winter temperatures the plant can withstand and which diseases it is resistant to. Before making a choice, also find out what culture-specific diseases are prevalent in your area.
Important! Gardeners note that leafy seedlings are taken much harder. Therefore, plants are planted before the buds open.
What you need to prepare before landing
For planting you will need: a shovel, a bucket of humus or rotted manure, 1-2 buckets of water and mulching material. It can be organic natural substrates: wood chips, straw, needles or industrial material - agrofiber (for example, spunbond).
Optimal time for landing
The best time to plant is determined by the presence of moist soil and the absence of frost. This is early spring or the first half of autumn. The root system develops well if the air temperature is low, plus, in the range from + 5 ° С to + 10 ° С. Spring garden soil is saturated with moisture, which is good for planting currants.
How terms depend on the region
The spring months are suitable for planting plants and for the northern regions, where winter temperatures drop below -23 ° C. In the south, spring and autumn plantings are allowed, but gardeners prefer autumn. The bush manages to take root, form a developed root system and will bear fruit a year earlier than those that will be planted in spring.
Did you know? Currants began to be cultivated in Russia in the 11th century. The first bushes were simply transplanted from the forest to the monastery garden, which gave the name to the plant — "Monastery berry."
5 golden landing rules
To get decent crops you need:
- rationally choose a site for landing;
- take into account the rules of crop rotation and plant alleopathy;
- check the composition of the soil and bring it to the "optimal" for growing;
- plant bushes, given that between them should be at least 1.5 meters of free space;
- provide plants with further care after planting.
Blackcurrant grows well both in partial shade and in the sun. If possible, give preference to the sunny area. The sugar content of berries depends on this.
It is advisable that the site is flat and horizontal. If the bush is planted on an inclined area, then the moisture will more quickly "go" from the roots. Currants are not planted in lowlands, where cold air accumulates and water stagnates.
When developing, trees and shrubs can enter into competition with each other or interact. Phytoncides secreted by plants alone can deter pests of other plants. This interaction of cultures is called allelopathy. It is the subject of study of agricultural academies in many countries.
The bush of black currant will grow well next to another, the same black-fruited variety. Phytoncides of onions, garlic, calendula, mustard, planted in aisles, are able to deter its pests. A shrub plant will also interact well with strawberries and strawberries. Now currant essential oils will protect neighbors from pests.
It is believed that currants interact poorly with trees. The powerful root system of the tree will take away nutrients and water from the shrub. Blackcurrant also grows poorly next to red because of different requirements for development conditions. She has common pests with gooseberries, and common diseases with conifers. Therefore, these plants are not suitable for close proximity.
Proper soil mix
The soil on the site should be well-drained and fertile. The best is sandy loam. It holds mineral and organic fertilizers well, easily warms up, passes air well.
Also in suburban areas loam is found. It contains a large percentage of clay, but it is suitable for berry shrubs. Plants in such soil need fertilizer, watering and weed removal. Acceptable acidity level is 5.5–7 pH. You can measure its level with a special tester purchased in a store for gardeners.
The scheme and depth of the landing pit
The depth of the landing pit should be slightly larger than the size of the root ball. Approximately 40 × 40 cm. Its preparation depends on the composition of the soil. When planting on loam, the top layer is mixed with rotted manure or compost (in the amount of 1 bucket) and laid on the bottom of the pit. Then a blackcurrant bush is planted and sprinkled with ordinary soil.
Important! When planting currants, a drainage layer is necessarily laid at the bottom of the pit: pebbles, gravel or other material. And only then fertilizers are poured on top of them — soil and finish landing.
Alumina is very dense and is decompressed by the addition of sand. The application rate is 40 kg per 1 m². Peat or ash can also be added. But if possible - do not plant bushes in clay soils or make raised beds.
The distance between the bushes
The permissible distance between the bushes is 1.5–2 m. Also take into account that an adult bush reaches a diameter of 1.5 m. Plant seedlings under a slight slope. The root neck of blackcurrant should be planted 5 cm deeper than the seedling grew before.
Video: Planting blackcurrant
After landing care
After planting, the shrub will need:
- fertilizer application;
- weed removal and cultivation;
- taking measures to protect against pests and diseases.
Watering currants is carried out regularly. Frequency - 1 time per week. The norm of watering is 2-3 buckets per week per 1 bush. It is advisable to organize drip irrigation. This will allow better soil penetration in the root growth zone.After watering, the soil is loosened and weeds are removed. Loosening provides access of oxygen to the lower layers of the soil. It is necessary for the development of beneficial microorganisms, which, in turn, will process biochemical substances from the soil into those that are easily absorbed by plants.
As the bush grows, it expends nutrients from the soil, draining it. To restore fertility, fertilizers are applied. They should contain nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. They feed in the early spring.It will take 50 g of ammonium nitrate, 30 g of superphosphate and 30 g of potassium sulfate.
They are dissolved in 10 liters of water and poured under a bush. If organic compounds, for example, compost will be used instead of industrial fertilizers, then it will need 4-5 kg for each bush. After feeding, the land is watered abundantly.
Did you know? The maturity of blackcurrant berries occurs 3 weeks after they become dark in color.
Recommendations for beginning gardeners
Black currants are not only tasty, but also medicinal berries. They are used to strengthen vision, maintain the gastrointestinal tract, improve memory and brain function. Berries have many useful substances and minerals.
Before you start planting, carefully approach the selection of varieties. Since it is problematic to distinguish a seedling from one variety from another, purchase planting material only in certified nurseries. And it will be nice if this nursery is located nearby, and you can personally choose a seedling, and not receive a copy of unknown quality by mail.
Also pay attention to the conditions under which a particular variety can grow. Do not buy plants not zoned in your area.Follow the basic rules of agricultural technology to get the most out of your bushes. Choose and plant disease resistant varieties. When grown in a sunny area with fertile soil and proper agricultural technology, you can achieve high results from your plantation.
Planting and caring for currant bushes are not too complicated and burdensome chores. To collect a decent harvest of delicious, fragrant berries, it is enough to regularly apply simple techniques of agricultural technology.