Black Currant Vigorous: the main characteristics of the variety
Many gardeners liked black currants because of their unpretentiousness to climate and soil, as well as due to the valuable properties of berries. Long-term hard work of breeders also bore fruit - frost-resistant, large-fruited and high-yielding varieties appeared on the market. One of these is Vigorous. Its features will be further discussed in the article.
Description of blackcurrant variety Yadrenaya
This currant variety differs from other breeding novelties in the average ripening period of the crop, as well as its large size and excellent commodity characteristics. Like most other modern varieties, bred by the staff of the M.A. The bush is more susceptible to anthracnose. However, with timely preventive measures, the development of pathology can be avoided without loss of yield.
Did you know? As a result of experimental studies, scientists came to the conclusion that the amount of vitamins in the fruits of blackcurrant is rapidly increasing in a cool environment, that is, the closer the bush grows to the north, the more useful its fruits.
The plant self-pollinates, adapts well to any soil conditions. However, to obtain a stable yield and high quality berries, experts advise carefully choosing a seat when laying a berry.The ripening period of the fruit is somewhat extended. Fruiting in the Nucleus is short-term, but plentiful. In mid-July, large sour-sweet berries ripen from long loose currant brushes.
Their advantages are excellent dessert taste, versatility and the large size of some items. The disadvantages are obvious in the unevenness of the fruits: some berries can weigh about 8 g, while others can only weigh 3-4 g.According to the reviews of experienced gardeners, while providing the necessary care, up to 6 kg of crop can be obtained from each shrub. But for this it is necessary to carry out annual pruning and timely top dressing.
In the agricultural market of Russia, Black Currant Yadrenaya appeared at the beginning of the XXI century. The authors of the variety are scientists of the M. Lisavenko Research Institute of Horticulture in Siberia, who for many years tried to develop a stable and fertile type of currant for the Altai Territory.
Mountain Altai climate is characterized by a sharp continentality. The region has very harsh winters and exhaustingly arid summers. In addition, on poor medium loamy soils, few people managed to grow a good crop of fruit crops, even with proper care.
The breeder Lidia Zabelina, who is recognized as the originator of the variety, was the first to approach the ambitious goal. When crossing seedlings Lyubimits Altai, Bredthorpe and Dikovinka, the expected result was obtained.
The newly produced seedling showed high frost and drought tolerance, satisfactorily tolerated pathogenic microflora and tick attacks. Its berries were striking in their size and pleasant taste.
Did you know? The name "currant" comes from the Old Slavonic "currant", which signified a strong unpleasant smell: the spirit of these bushes scares away harmful insects.
Since the description of Yadrenoy fully corresponded to the declared quality, the variety was entered into the State Register and very soon spread outside of Russia. At home, it was recommended for cultivation in the Volga-Vyatka and West Siberian regions.
Appearance, characteristics of berries, ripening time, yield
Since when the Yadrenaya currant was bred at the initial stages, the variety was grafted with high cold and drought tolerance, the plant produces the best crops in its native Altai and in the neighboring regions of Siberia. With proper care in those parts, the bush develops correctly and bears fruit with record-breaking large and tasty berries. Its growing season lasts about 120 days.
The plant consists of:
- a thick fibrous root system, the bulk of which is located at a depth of 35–55 cm, occupying about half a meter from the central trunk;
- thick, low-leaf shoots, which are resistant to adverse development factors (young shoots are characterized by light pubescence and light bark, which turns very brown next year);
- dark green wrinkled foliage, consisting of 5 wide-triangular lobes with serrated edges, golden glands on veins without hairiness;
- pinkish-green inflorescences in the form of drooping brushes up to 8 cm long, on which about 6-12 bell-shaped flowers with a diameter of up to 9 mm are usually formed;
- aromatic fruits with a diameter of up to 2 cm (the berries are characterized by a plum-like shape, a glossy elastic skin, which, during ripening, changes color from light green to brown and rich black, multi-seed pulp, in which there are more than 37 small grains, a sweet and sour dessert taste and rich vitamin and mineral composition).
The kernel blooms in late spring, and the first berries are sung in mid-summer. Their rapid formation compares favorably with other varieties. With the onset of heat, the buds of the lower branches, warming from the ground, intensively start growing soon after snowmelt. As a result, the mid-early entry of the plant into the phase of laying the ovary is obvious.
It is important not to miss the period when the berries reach their condition, because when they are ripe, they quickly crumble from the bushes and lose valuable components. In this case, green foliage on the branches can persist until severe cold weather sets in.
Did you know? Unripe currant berries contain 4 times more ascorbic acid than ripe ones. As the fruit ripens, the amount of vitamins decreases.
In a hundred gram portion of it contains:
|Vitamins, polyunsaturated fatty acids and easily digestible carbohydrates||Macro and microelements|
|retinol - 17 mcg||aluminum - 561.5 mcg|
|beta-carotene - 0.1 mg||boron - 55 mcg|
|thiamine - 0.03 mg||vanadium - 4 mcg|
|riboflavin - 0.04 mg||iron - 1.3 mg|
|choline - 12.34 mg||iodine - 1 mcg|
|pantothenic acid - 0.4 mg||potassium - 350 mg|
|pyridoxine - 0.13 mg||calcium - 36 mg|
|pyridoxine - 0.13 mg||cobalt - 4 mcg|
|folates - 0.5 mcg||silicon - 70 mg|
|ascorbic acid - 200 mg||lithium - 0.9 mcg|
|tocopherol - 0.7 mg||magnesium - 31 mg|
|Biotin - 2.5 mcg||Manganese - 0.18 mg|
|phylloquinone - 0.1 mcg||copper - 130 mcg|
|niacin - 0.3 mg||molybdenum - 24 mcg|
|Omega-3 - 0.072 g||sodium - 32 mg|
|Omega-6 - 0.107 g||nickel - 1.6 mcg|
|starch and dextrins - 0.6 g||rubidium - 11.8 mcg|
|mono - and disaccharides - 7.3 g||selenium - 1.1 mcg|
|glucose - 1.5 g||sulfur - 2 mg|
|sucrose - 1 g||strontium - 14.4 mcg|
|fructose - 4.2 g||phosphorus - 33 mg|
The nutritional value of blackcurrant berries consists of:
- protein - 1 g;
- fat - 0.4 g;
- carbohydrates - 7.3 g;
- calories - 44 kcal.
Important! The best containers for collecting currants are potato baskets and trolleys with a capacity of 2-3 kg.
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
Today, the name of the Yadrennaya variety in gardeners is associated with super-large fruits and endurance. However, these are not the only criteria by which the variety has been praised by consumers. This currant has its advantages and disadvantages.
- Rapid entry into the fruiting phase (the first berries appear on two-year-old seedlings)
- High yield
- Undemanding to soil composition and growing conditions
- High resistance to powdery mildew and kidney mites
- Frost and drought resistance
- Crop versatility
- Not uniformity of berries
- Excessive acid in taste
- Low mobility
- Unsuitability of fruits for long-term storage (berries must be consumed or processed for 3 days)
- The tendency of the bushes to aging, which is manifested by the cessation of fruiting and drying branches
- The plant requires constant care, otherwise the berries are crushed and become even more acidic
Blackcurrant can take root in any area and bear fruit to one degree or another. But in order for the bushes to be productive, experts advise them to plant them in a specially prepared place and regularly care for them.Success in the cultivation of the Yadrennaya variety is guaranteed by a scrupulous, competent selection of seedlings and a planting seat, as well as regular care.
It consists in timely watering, top dressing, preventive spraying, pruning and preparing young bushes for wintering. The quality and timeliness of all work carried out in the berry is especially relevant in the first years after planting.
To obtain an annual stable crop, experienced gardeners advise when choosing a place for laying a currant berry to pay attention to the following nuances:
- Illumination of the site and its protection from through winds (preferably sunlit or semi-shady hills, where rain and melt water, as well as cold air are not collected);
- fertility and friability of soils (it is desirable to choose nutritious chernozems with neutral acidity);
- ground moisture level (due to the fact that the bushes do not have deep roots, moderately moist areas are preferable, and waterlogging should be avoided, since dampness is a reliable conductor of fungal infections);
- predecessors and neighbors (currants develop poorly after, as well as near sea buckthorn, cherries, walnuts, gooseberries and raspberries, all other berry and vegetable crops are good predecessors for her).
Important! Ideally, if the soil is well warmed up in the area chosen for currants during the day, and it contains a minimal amount of potassium carbonate. In excess, this soil component may be the main cause of chlorosis..
It is better to plant the Nucleus according to the scheme 3.0 × 1.0 m. The size of the planting pit should correspond to the root system of seedlings and in no case should it be constrained. Previously, the roots are treated with any growth stimulator (Kornevin, Ekosil), and the recess is fertilized with humus or compost (usually 5-6 kg are used for this purpose).
Landing can be planned both in spring and autumn. There is no significant difference, however, there are some subtleties that affect the further productivity of the planted berry:
- In spring, you must wait until the soil and air have warmed to a temperature of at least + 12 ° C. With spring rooting, plentiful watering is important. To protect the bush from drying out caused by weathering of soil moisture, it is recommended to water the bush when planting until the soil absorbs moisture.
- In autumn, it is advisable to plant at least 2-3 weeks before the onset of frost. This period is enough for the roots to adapt to the new environment and not die during the period of lowering the temperature regime. Abundant watering during this period is inappropriate, since excessive moisture can provoke an intensive buildup of biomass and, as a result, freezing out of the fragile root system. This method of rooting seedlings is recommended for varieties with high frost resistance, especially when it comes to regions with harsh climates.
Did you know? The official name "ribes" was given to the currants by the Arabs. In ancient centuries they conquered Spanish lands and, to their horror, did not find a favorite rhubarb on them. However, the smell and sour taste of currant fruits reminded the conquerors of rhubarb.
For stable fruiting and full development, currants need:
- moderate moisture;
- loose quality soil.
Unproductive bushes due to competition for nutrients in the soil, which overwhelmingly go to the growth of unnecessary vegetation. In addition, weeds attract pests, which are the best vehicles for fungal and bacterial diseases.Under the currant, it is important to periodically loosen the soil to a depth of 10-12 cm. Do not deepen too deeply, since the fibrous roots of the bushes grow strongly to the sides and can be damaged during processing. Enough glanders to destroy the top crust on garden soil. This will contribute to aeration of the root system, which, in turn, will ensure proportional plant growth.
Features of watering: spring, summer, autumn
The variety belongs to an insensitive group of fruit crops to a long-term moisture deficit. However, only adult plants can survive the drought painlessly, and young bushes in such conditions are prone to death. To prevent premature wilting of the formed ovary, the berry should be watered periodically.
Intensive irrigation of fragile seedlings is indicated in the first 2 months after spring planting (in the case of autumn rooting, in April and May).
In addition, a sufficient amount of moisture in the Kernel of any age is necessary during the flowering period, the formation of the ovary and the ripening of the crop, so take into account the weather characteristics of the region where the crop is grown, and monitor the condition of the soil on the plantation. It should be moderately moist, but in no case dry and not swampy.
Important! To prevent the development of weeds, it is advisable to cover the soil in the berry after watering with mulch. Coniferous materials are strictly contraindicated for these purposes, since they are the cause of soil oxidation.
It is strictly forbidden to use cold water when watering. Be sure to let it stand and warm up in direct sunlight for 48 hours. In the summer, after harvesting, currant bushes require abundant watering, since this procedure affects the laying of future berries. The procedure should also be repeated in September, when the bush begins to prepare for the coming cold.
Top dressing: before, during and after fruiting
Experienced gardeners for soil replenishment advise in the first 2 years of the life of seedlings to plant mustard in the rows of the berry as siderat, and in the future this section should be kept under black steam.
In spring, bushes need nitrogenous components, which stimulates the growth of biomass. It will be useful to water the solution of chicken droppings (it is prepared in a ratio of 1: 5), as well as the introduction of urea, ammonium nitrate (20 g of fertilizer is required for every 1 m² of plot).The second and third feeding is carried out with an interval of 14 days and involves the introduction of potash fertilizers (1 gm requires 40 g of potassium sulfate). Their main task is to prepare the bushes for winter and future fruiting.
Pest and Disease Control
In most cases, the Yadrenaya variety shows high sensitivity to powdery mildew pathogens, as well as to attacks of soil mites. In case of infection, the first symptom should not be neglected. If you do not take timely measures, you can lose the plant.
Due to the fact that breeders at the genetic level have taken care of the resistance of this variety of blackcurrant to common diseases and pests, it is not difficult to grow it.
Subject to agricultural regulations, culture does not require additional measures. And in regions where epidemic outbreaks are observed, spring and autumn spraying should be carried out to prevent bush infections.
To combat fungi and bacteria, the following solutions are recommended:
- Bordeaux fluid (1%);
- copper sulfate (5%);
- colloidal sulfur (1%);
- fungicides "Skor", "Maxim" (prepared strictly according to the recommendations of the manufacturers).
It is important that pesticides do not fall on the fruits, so preventive treatment of plants is relevant before they bloom, and also after harvesting. In case of emergency treatment, be sure to read the instructions for use, paying attention to the decay time of the active substances.
Keep in mind that treatment measures include the complete elimination of damaged areas of the bushes and further disinfection, which is carried out several times with an interval of 14 days until the problem completely disappears. In addition, it will be necessary to analyze the causes of the development of pathogens and completely eliminate the conditions that contribute to their activity.
Did you know? The Slavs engaged in targeted cultivation of currant bushes in the distant XI century. In the annals of that time it is indicated that the berries grew only at monasteries, so currants were then called the "monastery berry". Initially, the fruits were used to prepare medicines, and since the crops were generous, the product was introduced into the kitchen for processing and making sweets.
Trimming and shaping a bush
Currant bushes of the Yadrenaya variety are shown annual forming and rejuvenating pruning, which should be carried out strictly according to the scheme below:
- 1st year - cut most of the sprouts, leaving 10-15 cm from the surface of the earth (it is important that there are 2-4 well-developed buds on each shoot);
- 2nd year - radically remove all small shoots, as well as unripened and weakened branches (frozen and damaged sprouts are subject to elimination), no more than 4 of the most developed shoots of zero order should be left, from which the skeleton of the bush will be formed in the future;
- 3rd year - 4-5 of the most promising ones are selected from the first-order branches that have appeared, and the rest are removed;
- 4th year — they form a currant bush in such a way that it consists of 15–20 skeletal branches;
- The 5th year and further - the bushes require an annual anti-aging and sanitary pruning, which consists in the elimination of dry, damaged, old and competing shoots.
Adult currants tolerates winter well and does not require additional preparation for cold weather. But young seedlings can suffer from severe frosts, so it is important to water and fertilize them with phosphorus-potassium mineral fertilizers in the fall.Make sure that the packaging is marked “autumn”, otherwise the bushes will begin to intensively build up green biomass, which will die with a minimum decrease in temperature.If necessary, seedlings can be wrapped with agrofibre or spruce branches. This is an excellent way to protect the plant from hungry rodents.
In the Altai Territory and regions located near Siberia, it is recommended in the second half of autumn to mulch the berry with a layer of horse peat, sawdust, hay or straw. The thickness of the mulch should correspond to 10-15 cm.
Important! To alkalize the soil in the garden, it is recommended to add from 150 to 300 g of slaked lime or dolomite flour for every square meter every 3-4 years.
Harvesting and transportation of crops
In regions of the temperate climatic zone, Yadrenaya currant begins to ripen closer to mid-July. In the southern regions, the berries reach their biological ripeness 2-3 weeks earlier, and in the northern regions, on the contrary, the harvesting time is delayed exactly for the same period. Regardless of the place of growth, the fruits are sung gradually, pouring in an even dark color.When picking currant berries from branches, do not pile them in your palms, so as not to damage, because the thin skin easily bursts, as a result of which the product spoils. It is also not worth pouring the harvested crop from one container to another. Berries are poorly transported and retain their freshness for only 3 days.
To a large extent, this process can be corrected by weather conditions. For example, the sunny season is accompanied by an imminent condition, while the cold season, on the contrary, slows it down.
Intensive ripening of berries begins in the last weeks of July. They need to be collected right away, because after a few days they will re-sing and fall from the branches. The taste of such instances is significantly deteriorating.Harvesting is recommended in dry sunny weather. Categorically, these works should not be planned in the rain and heat. Then the fruits will deteriorate faster.
Store fresh fruits in a cool place. If a large crop is collected, it is better to wash it, put it in bags and freeze it. Any home canning is also possible.
The main advantage of the Yadrenaya blackcurrant variety is its large-fruited nature, but the sour taste and heterogeneity of the crop reduce their interest in it, therefore, having acquired such currants, be prepared to regularly take care of the bushes, maintaining their stable productivity.